ED 200 Final Exam (Fall 2022)

Art Book / Text Book Final Activity

Rather than trying to meet with each person for 3 – 4 minutes to look at your Art Book we will do this project as our final culminating Art Book Activity. 

For the final Art Book / Text Book activity, you are asked to create a document that highlights some of your best ‘art book/textbook’ work. In the document that you create, include your name, a title, and photos of any five pages from your Art Book. Accompanying each photo please include a short explanation of what your image represents and why the image is significant in understanding some aspect of schooling or education. This short explanation will likely be similar to what you shared with the members at your table.

On the final page of your document, include a rubric that would be appropriate to use to score your Art Book. Even though I included an Art Book rubric on the first day of our class (find online), you may either use this rubric I provided or design one that better represents the work that you were doing. I will evaluate your work using your own rubric so that you are evaluated fairly and reasonably.

Your document should be emailed to me (ulvelad@wou.edu) as a PDF.

Label the header of your email Art Book Project. I will email you back to let you know that I have received your work.


ED 200 Final Exam (Fall 2022)

First the Context:

Variations and Multi-Dimensional Understanding

Teachers must concern themselves with the way things come into existence. Why? This coming-into-existence reveals important human physical and social aspects of the artifact/process/idea being taught. It reveals the reasons things have come into existence and why we have incorporated them into our lives. It reveals the ‘for-the-sake-of’ and the ‘in-order-to’. It reveals the way materials are experienced. It reveals how we experience the form and the process of the thing in question. It also suggests to us how the thing (the artifact or process) might be available for our use, or show itself in future encounters. Furthermore, we can recognize how slight variations in any of the causal modalities (context) might reveal different variations of the artifact.

When we teach, we are expected to understand that there are fundamental concepts or ideas that are being learned through the use of activities. Unfortunately, many students and many teachers believe that it is the activity itself that is to be remembered. For example, the teacher might forget to ensure that the student learning about lighting the bulb with the battery recognized that doing the battery-bulb activity is actually an activity to help reveal the importance and use of circuits. 

Circuit is a foundational idea that helps tie together many dimensions of understanding. Having an understanding of circuits is not only having a realization of all the contributing modalities within one circuit variation (such as lighting a bulb with a battery), but also connecting other variations (other contexts that incorporate circuits) to broaden the understanding of circuits. One can better understand how circuits work in a new context (such as lighting a bulb with a battery) when connecting these leaning to previously learned examples of circuits (such as children’s train tracks, roller coasters, and water cycles). These connections, the old with the new, help form our multiple-dimension understanding of the value of circuits. 

We can create an understanding modality frame for each of a number of variations. 

For example, here are three variations on circuits. 

Each variation represents one plane or surface of one’s multiple dimensional understanding of circuits. 

Sometimes, as mentioned, teachers and students think that the activity itself is the foundational reason for doing the activity. But we don’t have students light a bulb with a wire and battery so that they can then light a bulb with a wire and battery in the future. We try to help them understand the underlying foundational ideas. In this case, circuitry.

Rather than focusing on “how do I do this task?”, we shift that focus to “why do I do this task and what does it mean for me now and in the future?” We light the bulb with a battery so that we understand circuits and the importance of circuitry in contexts that involve electricity. 

As we develop a variety of variations, we can note the similarity between each variation because we have linked the concept of circuit to each variation. We can, with our multi-dimensional understanding say, “the electrical circuit is like the circuits that we find in nature, and amusement parks, and human made activities. 


Connecting the new understanding,


to the old understanding.




We, at this point, after connecting three variations together, we have three planes established toward a multi-dimensional understanding of circuitry. 1, 2, and 3.




Here are your questions:


Question 1: Pick out a student or teacher edition of a subject textbook (science, math, health, social studies, etc.) at any particular grade level from the library curriculum section.  Create three variations on the concept being understood. The first variation should represent the new concept as developed in the textbook. The other two variations will be your own variations of the concept. 

Repeat this process two more times but using different grade levels and subject areas. So, if your first set of variations was on a Third Grade Math concept, the other two might be a concept being learned in Grade 5 Science and then another concept being learned in Grade 8 Social Studies. 

You should have a total of three variations per grade and subject area for a total of nine variations. 

***Helpful note: you might find it helpful, when picking out your concept, to go to the vocabulary definitions in the back of the textbook. These definitions are typically given to help students learn the new concepts. The page numbers where the vocabulary appear are also often given.


Explaining how knowledge differs from understanding:

In our discussions of the three branches of government story, the young student did ‘know’ that there were three branches of government and she did ‘know’ what those branches were. However, she didn’t have a sophisticated understanding. 

Question 2: draw a diagram using neurons that represents the difference between knowing something and having an understanding.


Question 3: what does this interpretation of knowledge and understanding suggest to you as a current student and as a future teacher?


On Efficiency and Scientific Management

Question 4: What is the connection between the Gilbreth’s work and Eadweard Muybridge’s photography?

Question 5: What were the Gilbreths trying to figure out?

Question 6: Imagine you are talking to a fifth-grade student. Explain scientific management?

Question 7: What do you believe could be five of the most important direct influences on schools from what Frederick Taylor wrote in  Principles of Scientific Management or from what you watched in the video clips on Frederick Taylor?

Question 8: Give three examples of how your own schooling experienced been influenced by scientific management?


Time and Efficiency

We considered how a focus on mechanical time can be a contextual impediment to learning. 

Question 9: Explain how and why an emphasis on time might impede one’s development of understanding. 


From Kittens in Tubes to Bodily Experiences: Tying it all together.

Question  10: Explain how outdoor kindergartens and junk yard playgrounds might be more advantageous to students’ future understanding of circuits and other science concepts than doing worksheets in a first grade class.


‘He will explain it to me 500 times if he has to, but he will make me understand.” Perturbing and Connecting Neuronal Cell Assemblies

Question 11: In the Hobart Shakespeareans, we saw that Rafe Esquith helping students develop understanding whether he was helping them understand Hamlet, Huck Finn, or how to deal with finances. Explain what he was doing in terms perturbing and connecting neuronal cell assemblies that helped students develop a reasonably sophisticated level of understanding.


Platts Begoilla

We considered how teachers can actively create environments or scenarios that can help students wire together neuronal cell assemblies to understand something even if they lack initial understanding. 

Question 12: Using our Platts Begoilla example, explain how one can go from seemingly no neurons firing to a fuller understanding.


Context confers meaning

Question 13: In Week Eight Part 2 we noticed that Architecture played a special role in High-Tech High. How does the architecture of High Tech High influence what and how students learn? Please give five examples.

Question 14: In Week Eight Part 2 you will find The best kindergarten you’ve ever seen | Takaharu Tezuka. How does architecture influence what and how children learn? Please give five examples.


Gatto Loves Education, but not institutional practices.

Question 15: In his Seven Lesson School Teacher speech, John Taylor Gatto spoke critically of the practices inherent in schooling institutions. What does his talk mean for us as future educators?


Project-Based Learning 

Question 16: Explain how project-based learning differs from a traditional teacher-centered classroom. In your explanation, describe why project-based learning might better represent how the brain comes to develop understanding. Please make reference to the Project-Based School examples from Week 8, Part 2.


Submitting your Exam

You may email me a PDF of your exam, or bring a printed copy of your exam to class on Monday, December 5th by 10:00. Or, you may bring me a printed copy of your exam on Thursday, December 8th, to our classroom at 1:00. If you email me your exam on December 5th, please ensure you receive an email back from me confirming that I have received your exam. I will not be able to track you down if I have not received your exam.